Here are some of the basic exercises you may encounter in the first phase of rehab. Some may need to be avoided depending on your condition/injury.
Pendulums - These are usually the first "exercise" you will perform following a shoulder surgery. These should be pain free, so if they aren't it is likely that you're trying too hard and not letting your shoulder relax and swing. Click here for a demonstration https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V57uoLgsq04
Cane Exercises - These exercises are active-assistive, meaning that your uninvolved/uninjured shoulder does most of the work. A dowel rod or golf club works great if you don't have a cane. The following are a series of link depending on the motion desired - for flexion https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=erqdLgZbq_U&feature=related ; for external rotation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ctYXMGh4Ous&feature=related ; for internal rotation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxcLmV8EoOg&feature=related
Table Slides - This is a simple exercise for easy range of motion and should be performed in a pain free range. It helps to perform this exercise on a table top with a towel under your arm so that it slides better. Click here for a demo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7qX6edrnnw8
T-Band Exercises - The following clip is a series of six different shoulder exercises with a resistance band. Some of the motions may need to be avoided depending on your condition. You may also do the exercises without a band for range of motion. Check it out here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWxcl9SMH4c